Where Credit is Due: How Africa’s Debt Can Be a Benefit, Not a Burden






Africa’s vast and diverse continent has been grappling with the issue of debt for decades. The external debt stock of sub-Saharan Africa alone stands at over $650 billion, a figure that has been rising steadily in recent years. This significant debt burden poses both opportunities and challenges for African nations, creating a double-edged sword that requires careful consideration. In this article, we will explore the benefits and burdens of Africa’s debt, and how it can potentially be a source of growth and development rather than a hindrance.

Infrastructure Development


One of the key benefits of debt for African countries is the financing of essential infrastructure projects. Many African nations have historically lacked adequate infrastructure, which hinders economic growth and development. Debt allows governments to invest in infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, power plants, and healthcare facilities. These investments can improve connectivity, boost economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for citizens.

Debt financing also enables governments to undertake larger and more ambitious infrastructure projects that may not be possible through domestic resources alone. For example, the Chinese-funded Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya was built at a cost of $3.8 billion, and it has significantly improved transportation and trade within the country. Similarly, the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway in Ethiopia, funded by Chinese loans, has greatly enhanced connectivity and trade between the two countries. These projects would not have been possible without external debt financing.

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Improved Connectivity

Investments in infrastructure through debt financing can greatly improve connectivity within and between African countries. This is especially important for landlocked countries that rely on transportation networks to access international markets. For example, the construction of new roads through debt financing in landlocked countries like Malawi and Zambia has reduced the cost and time of transporting goods to ports, making their exports more competitive. In addition, improved connectivity can also promote intra-African trade, which has historically been low compared to other regions.

Economic Growth and Development

Infrastructure investments funded by debt can have a significant impact on economic growth and development in African nations. Improved transportation networks, for instance, can reduce the cost of doing business, making the country more attractive to investors. This can lead to increased foreign direct investment (FDI) and job creation, as well as stimulate domestic industries by providing better access to inputs and markets. Furthermore, infrastructure projects such as power plants and water supply systems can provide reliable and affordable services, boosting productivity and income levels for citizens.

Quality of Life

The development of infrastructure through debt financing can also enhance the quality of life for citizens in African countries. For example, investments in healthcare facilities can improve access to essential medical services, leading to better health outcomes and a healthier population. This, in turn, can reduce the burden on the healthcare system and increase productivity. Similarly, investments in education, through the construction of schools and training institutions, can provide opportunities for citizens to acquire new skills and improve their employability.

Access to Essential Services


Another benefit of debt for African nations is the ability to provide essential services to its citizens. Many African countries face challenges in providing basic services such as education, healthcare, and clean water. Debt financing allows governments to invest in these sectors, which can have far-reaching benefits.


Debt can enable governments to invest in education, which is crucial for human capital development and economic growth. The United Nations estimates that about 22 million children in sub-Saharan Africa are out of school, with many families unable to afford school fees and other related expenses. Debt financing can help bridge this gap by providing funding for schools, teachers, and materials. This can increase access to education and ultimately lead to a more educated population, which is essential for a sustainable future.

In addition, investments in higher education through debt financing can also lead to the development of a skilled workforce. This, in turn, can attract more FDI and contribute to economic growth and development. For example, the African Development Bank (AfDB) has invested over $700 million in higher education infrastructure in several African countries, leading to improved capacity in universities and research institutions.


Debt financing can also help governments provide access to quality healthcare services for their citizens. Many African countries have inadequate healthcare systems, with a shortage of medical personnel, equipment, and facilities. This can result in poor health outcomes and hinder economic development. Through debt financing, governments can invest in healthcare infrastructure and resources, which can improve access to essential services and reduce the burden on the public healthcare system.

For example, the World Bank has provided loans to support healthcare projects in several African countries, including Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Uganda. These investments have led to improvements in maternal and child health, disease control, and emergency response systems. As a result, there has been a significant decline in mortality rates and an increase in life expectancy in these countries.

Water Supply and Sanitation

Access to clean water and sanitation is another critical aspect of human development that can be improved through debt financing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 319 million people in sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to safe drinking water, and 695 million lack access to basic sanitation. This can have serious implications for health and productivity, particularly in rural areas.

Through debt financing, governments can invest in water supply and sanitation infrastructure, such as piped water systems, boreholes, and sewage treatment plants. This can greatly improve access to clean water and sanitation services for citizens, reducing the risk of waterborne diseases and improving overall well-being. Additionally, investments in this sector can stimulate economic growth by creating jobs and increasing agricultural productivity through irrigation systems.

Job Creation


Debt-financed projects often require a significant workforce, creating employment opportunities and reducing unemployment. This can have a positive impact on economic growth and reduce social unrest.

Infrastructure Projects

Infrastructure projects funded by debt often require labor-intensive construction work, providing employment opportunities for both skilled and unskilled workers. This can particularly benefit young people and women who face higher unemployment rates in many African countries. For example, the construction of a new highway in Senegal, financed by the World Bank, created over 1,500 jobs during its construction phase.

In addition, the development of new infrastructure can also attract private sector investments, which can lead to further job creation in related industries. For instance, the construction of a new port through debt financing can attract shipping companies and other businesses, leading to a more robust local economy and more employment opportunities.

Investment in Human Capital

Debt-financed investments in education and healthcare can also lead to job creation. As previously mentioned, improved access to education can result in a more skilled workforce, making the country more attractive to investors. Similarly, investments in healthcare can create jobs in the healthcare industry, such as doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Furthermore, an educated and healthy population can lead to increased productivity and entrepreneurship, creating more employment opportunities.

Fiscal Flexibility


Debt can provide governments with additional fiscal space to respond to unexpected events such as natural disasters or economic downturns. This is especially important for developing countries that may not have significant reserves or alternative sources of funding.

Natural Disasters

African countries are vulnerable to natural disasters such as droughts, floods, and hurricanes, which can have devastating effects on the economy and population. In such situations, governments need to be able to respond quickly and effectively to mitigate the impact of these disasters. Debt financing can provide the necessary funds to support disaster relief efforts, rebuild damaged infrastructure, and provide assistance to affected communities.

For example, after the 2019 Cyclone Idai hit Mozambique, the government received a $118 million loan from the World Bank to support recovery and reconstruction efforts. This helped provide essential services and rebuild damaged infrastructure, allowing the country to recover and continue its development trajectory.

Economic Downturns

Debt can also provide governments with the fiscal space to respond to economic downturns. During times of economic crisis, governments may need to increase spending to stimulate the economy and protect its citizens from the adverse effects of the downturn. Debt financing can provide the necessary funds to implement economic stimulus packages, such as increased public works programs or tax cuts, which can help jumpstart economic growth.

During the 2008 global financial crisis, many African countries were able to use debt financing to mitigate the impact of the crisis and maintain economic stability. For instance, Kenya issued a $500 million Eurobond in 2014, which helped finance infrastructure projects and support its economy during the crisis.


In conclusion, debt can potentially provide several benefits to African economies, including infrastructure development, access to essential services, job creation, and fiscal flexibility. However, it is crucial for governments to carefully manage their debt to ensure that it does not become a burden. Borrowing must be done responsibly, and investments must be carefully chosen to ensure that they will generate a return and contribute to long-term sustainable development. With effective debt management and responsible borrowing, Africa’s debt can be a source of growth and development rather than a burden. As the saying goes, “where credit is due, let it be given.”


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